Tuesday, February 25, 2020

CLA Final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

CLA Final - Essay Example od of the Middle Ages and renaissance, when Latin became the predominant language in the entire Europe for most international educated discourse, mythological names were made to appear in Latinised form. The archaeological site of Knossos refers to the complex building of the palace and the surrounding buildings of similar antiquity which were inadvertently excavated at the same time with the palace. For a very long time the name Knossos has survived, from ancient Greek references to the main cities of the Crete. Knossos was majorly identified with a lot of bronze age sites that was mainly supported by the tradition and by the Roman coins that were spread all through the whole field that surrounded the pre-excavation sites. Many of the sites were surrounded by the Knosions or Knos both on the obverse and on the image of the Minotaur and even the Labyrinth. All the signs and symbols that were derived from the myth of King Minos were supposed to have reigned from Knossos. The excavation sites were discovered in late 1870s by an archaeologist known as Minos Kalokairinos. The excavation later began in AD 1990 by another archaeologist called Sir Arthur Evans and the process continued for a period of 35 years. Other than having the history of many years in the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the classical period, a lot of ruins in the age period of the archaeology have greatly undergone their own history (Latacz & Troy, 2004). From the excavation by renowned archaeologists, tourism and education to occupation of a headquarters by the ruling governments going into war over the control of the eastern part of the Mediterranean. The palace of Knossos became the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. In most cases it looked a maze of the workroom, living spaces and even the storerooms close to the central square. However the palace was abandoned for some unknown period of time towards the end of the late Bronze Age. Except for the periods when

Friday, February 21, 2020

Ethical Theory Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical Theory Paper - Essay Example Business is driven my profit motive. It meant that business owners put up their enterprises with the purpose of making money. Business therefore when left on its will do whatever it takes to make profit. It can only be mitigated by introducing ethics in business to temper its profit motive and have a sense of responsibility. Business ethics in fact, which business are now required to practice is in fact an oxymoron. One of the common practices of business to profit at whatever means possible is the case narrated by Gina Firenzi where deception is used in a warehouse sale. The â€Å"see through† pants were misrepresented by a marketing acrobatics to make it more appealing to customer by putting a tags saying â€Å"things dont always go as planned, this garment has fit, function, or visual imperfections† but did not say that it is in fact see through and that they are sold at final sale. Of course the company will refund those who complaint but those who will not, they already a made a money out of it. These pants were implied to be the recalled pants of Lululemon which is was already a reject but sold at a warehouse sale and made saleable by marketing acrobatics. They are prepared to do refund to those who will complaint, but will make money to those who will not. These pants were recalls anyway and it may not have cost them to buy it because they were supposed to be disposed. Business unethical practices however are not only confined to misrepresentation as cited by Gina Firenzi. The unethical practice can go back from the point of manufacture such as the recent case of the building of Cambodian factory that collapsed due to substandard working conditions. The collapsed exposed the unethical practice of major textile companies such as Swedish fast-fashion retailer  Hennes & Mauritz to subcontract sweat shop with hazardous working condition just to save on cost. And as expected Hennes & Mauritz denied

Saturday, February 8, 2020

GDP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

GDP - Essay Example As per the UN system, presentation of statistical record of GDP is the basic requirement for receiving financial loan or World Bank aid. The positive change in the GDP level, after consuming such loan is an indication that the financial aid has really helped the country. Around a few decades back, the military might was an indicator that displayed the country’s superiority and well-being perfection. However, now it is the economic independence and power, which has taken this place. Hence, an administrator or chief executive of any country is judged by the change in GDP levels that the person could manage, while heading the affairs of the country. During 1930s and 1940s, Gross National Product (GNP) became the tool to measure the country’s progress and prosperity level. GDP has carried this legacy to measure the nation’s living standard in terms of Gross Domestic Product. GDP is a good tool to analyze any country’s output and consumption data. This gives an indication of the goods produced in that country along with the rate of consumption of these goods by the people of specific country. However, this measurement was more accurate during the days when different nations had closed economy. With globalization, the world trade has received new boost, which encourages almost all nations to throw open its economy. This has resulted in synchronization of world economies. Hence, GDP can now be seen as a tool that measures economic prosperity of any nation in terms of change in the volume of trade conducted by the country within a specific period. However, GDP does not take into consideration the amount of domestic work for calculating the figures. The early inventors of GDP like Simon Kuznets and John Maynard Keynes did not take into account the amount of work done for doing different domestic chores like dish washing or laundry and

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Import and Export Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Import and Export - Essay Example Due to high GDP per capita income Kuwait is an attractive market for luxury and high end vehicles. Kuwait heavily depends on importing vehicles from other countries due to lack of manufacturing facilities and the value of auto imports rose to 23% during 2012 (Kuwaitstay, 1). We are focusing on exporting luxury car segment as its demand is very strong in Kuwait. In Kuwait due to high cost of production because of lack of resources and high cost of labor, manufacturing facilities for vehicles are not profitable, therefore almost all vehicles are imported from other countries (Kuwaitstay, 1). Our vehicles have great demand all over the world and in Kuwait because of high quality, engineering and economies of scale in production. 2. Logistics infrastructure elements important to our export and their significance. Infrastructure logistics elements that are important to export of luxury vehicles in Kuwait are transportation and communication facilities, public utilities, banking services a nd retail distribution channels along with presence of good quality court system, protection of intellectual property rights and standards (David and Stewart, 41). 2.1 Transportation infrastructure : Good Transportation facilities are very important because international movement of goods is highly affected by infrastructure without which shipment faces delays, merchandise gets damaged and leads to inappropriately packaged product. In case of luxury vehicles quality and time is utmost important and any delay or defect will not be tolerated by the customer and results in huge loss to the company (David and Stewart, 41). However in Kuwait transportation infrastructure is well developed with international standard airports, merchant marine and ports and terminals, well connected paved roads and good warehousing facility to store imported vehicles (CIA, 1). 2.2 Communication infrastructure : For international transactions smooth communication with customers and suppliers by different ch annels like mail, phone or digital and electronic media is crucial for smooth business transactions, sharing of information, product promotion, timely decisions and delivery of product and in different countries importance of different channels varies (David and Stewart, 62). Kuwait is a developed country with highly developed communications infrastructure. 2.3 Public Utilities infrastructure : Public Utilities infrastructure like electricity, water, sewage and gas are crucial for operating a warehouse and establishment of corporate office because lack of adequate and reliable supply of these things disrupt the functioning of business and increase the cost of operations (David and Stewart, 65). In Kuwait electricity and gas are cheap and easily available and water supplied by desalination is affordable and reliable with good sewage system. 2.4 Banking Service and Retail Distribution Channels : Banking system is critical for financial transactions and reduces the risk of internationa l business transactions and facilitates various services like options market hedging for hedging currency fluctuation risks. A well-developed retail distribution channel provides customers with product availability at convenience and proximity and helps a great deal in promoting the vehicle by store promotion and increase the point of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

A Hybrid Vehicle Is a Vehicle That Uses Two Essay Example for Free

A Hybrid Vehicle Is a Vehicle That Uses Two Essay Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the riders muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles to power it up. * In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e. g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured Motorized bicycles, Mopeds are of this type. [2] * In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing. [3] The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3884317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite[4] SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed a Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jurg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the active bicycle: the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles. [5] Heavy vehicles Bus Rapid Transit of Metz, a diesel-electric hybrid driving system by Van Hool[6] Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e. g. driven wheels or propellers—are required. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. With the exception of non-nuclear submarines, presently there is no or relatively little secondary energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e. g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—although this is now changing. Submarines are one of the oldest widespread applications of hybrid technology, running on diesel engines while surfaced and switching to battery power when submerged. Both series-hybrid and parallel hybrid drivetrains were used in the Second World War. Rail transport Main article: Hybrid train East Japan Railway Company HB-E300 series Europe The new Autorail a grande capacite (AGC or high-capacity railcar) built by the Canadian company Bombardier for service in France. This has dual mode (diesel and electric motors) and dual voltage capabilities (1500 and 25000 V) allowing it to be used on many different rail systems. [7] The locomotive has been on trials in Rotterdam, the Netherlands with Railfeeding, a Genesse and Wyoming company. China The First Hybrid Evaluating prototype locomotive was designed and contracted by rail research center MATRAI in 1999 and the sample was ready in 2000. It was a G12 locomotive that was converted to hybrid by using a 200KW diesel generator and batteries and also was equipped with 4 AC traction motors (out of 4) retrofited in the cover of the DC traction motors. Japan The first operational prototype of a hybrid train engine with significant energy storage and energy regeneration capability was introduced in Japan as the KiHa E200. It utilizes battery packs of lithium ion batteries mounted on the roof to store recovered energy. [8] North America In the U. S., General Electric introduced a prototype railroad engine with their Ecomagination technology in 2007. They store energy in a large set of sodium nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries to capture and store energy normally dissipated during dynamic braking or coasting downhill. They expect at least a 10% reduction in fuel use with this system and are now spending about $2 billion/yr on hybrid research. [9] Variants of the typical diesel electric locomotive include the Green Goat (GG) and Green Kid (GK) switching/yard engines built by Canadas Railpower Technologies. They utilize a large set of heavy duty long life (~10 yr) rechargeable lead acid (Pba) batteries and 1000 to 2000 HP electric motors as the primary motive sources and a new clean burning diesel generator (~160 Hp) for recharging the batteries that is used only as needed. No power or fuel are wasted for idling—typically 60–85% of the time for these type locomotives. It is unclear if dynamic braking (regenerative) power is recaptured for reuse; but in principle it should be easily utilized. Since these engines typical need extra weight for traction purposes anyway the battery packs weight is a negligible penalty. In addition the diesel generator and battery package are normally built on an existing retired yard locomotives frame for significant additional cost savings. The existing motors and running gear are all rebuilt and reused. Diesel fuel savings of 40–60% and up to 80% pollution reductions are claimed over that of a typical older switching/yard engine. The same advantages that existing hybrid cars have for use with frequent starts and stops and idle periods apply to typical switching yard use. [10] Green Goat locomotives have been purchased by Canadian Pacific Railway, BNSF Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, and Union Pacific Railroad among others. Cranes Railpower Technologies engineers working with TSI Terminal Systems are testing a hybrid diesel electric power unit with battery storage for use in Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes. RTG cranes are typically used for loading and unloading shipping containers onto trains or trucks in ports and container storage yards. The energy used to lift the containers can be partially regained when they are lowered. Diesel fuel and emission reductions of 50–70% are predicted by Railpower engineers. [11] First systems are expected to be operational in 2007. [12] Road transport, commercial vehicles 2008 GMC Yukon hybrid version Early hybrid systems are being investigated for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with some operational trucks and buses starting to come into use. The main obstacles seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet compensated for by fuel savings,[13] but with the price of oil set to continue on its upward trend, the tipping point may be reached by the end of 2015. [dated info] Advances in technology and lowered battery cost and higher capacity etc. developed in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others introduce hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company recently introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage seems to be competitive. [14][15] FedEx and others are starting to invest in hybrid delivery type vehicles—particularly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. [16] Military off-road vehicles Since 1985, the U. S. military has been testing serial hybrid Humvees[17][18] and have found them to deliver faster acceleration, a stealth mode with low thermal signature/ near silent operation, and greater fuel economy. Ships Ships with both mast-mounted sails and steam engines were an early form of hybrid vehicle. Another example is the diesel-electric submarine. This runs on batteries when submerged and the batteries can be re-charged by the diesel engine when the craft is on the surface. Newer hybrid ship-propulsion schemes include large towing kites manufactured by companies such as SkySails. Towing kites can fly at heights several times higher than the tallest ship masts, capturing stronger and steadier winds. Aircraft Taxiing and other ground operations of Boeing 737NGs will soon be done using hybrid electric drives as WheelTug ground propulsion systems become available. [19][20] By using the APU (powered by a turbine) to energize a Chorus electric motor mounted in the landing gear for ground movement, aircraft will be operating in a hybrid configuration where the main engines are used only for take off, landing, and flight. Boeing 737–800 The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane has a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric motor, which is coupled to a conventional propeller. The fuel cell provides all power for the cruise phase of flight. During takeoff and climb, the flight segment that requires the most power, the system draws on lightweight lithium-ion batteries. The demonstrator aircraft is a Dimona motor glider, built by Diamond Aircraft Industries of Austria, which also carried out structural modifications to the aircraft. With a wing span of 16. 3 meters (53. 5 feet), the airplane will be able to cruise at approximately 100 kilometers per hour (62 miles per hour) on power from the fuel cell. [21] Hybrid FanWings have been designed. A FanWing is created by two engines with the capability to autorotate and landing like a helicopter. [22] Engine type Hybrid electric-petroleum vehicles Hybrid New Flyer Metrobus Hybrid Optare Solo Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the Saturn Vue, Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h and 450h and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power the vehicle. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which offer varying advantages and disadvantages. [23][not in citation given] Henri Pieper in 1899 developed the first petro-electric hybrid automobile in the world. In 1900, Ferdinand Porsche developed a series-hybrid using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with a combustion generator set providing the electric power, setting two speed records[citation needed]. While liquid fuel/electric hybrids date back to the late 19th century, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978–79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to return as much as 75MPG with plans still sold to this original design, and the Mother Earth News modified version on their website. [24] The plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is becoming more and more common. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. The batteries can be plugged into house (mains) electricity for charging, as well being charged while the engine is running. Continuously outboard recharged electric vehicle (COREV) Given suitable infrastructure, permissions and vehicles, BEVs can be recharged while the user drives. The BEV establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism (see Conduit current collection). The BEVs batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged. Some of battery-electric locomotives used for maintenance trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation. Power is picked up from the electtrified rails where possible, switching to battery power where the electricity supply is disconnected. This provides the advantage, in principle, of virtually unrestricted highway range as long as you stay where you have BEV infrastructure access. Since many destinations are within 100 km of a major highway, this may reduce the need for expensive battery systems. Unfortunately private use of the existing electrical system is nearly universally prohibited. The technology for such electrical infrastructure is old and, outside of some cities, is not widely distributed (see Conduit current collection, trams, electric rail, trolleys, third rail). Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs can be funded, in principle, by toll revenue, gasoline or other taxes. Hybrid fuel (dual mode). Ford Escape Hybrid with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85 (ethanol) In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types (fuels) using the same engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles: * Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced. * Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanol, or methanol, or biobutanol. * Bi-fuel vehicle:Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. Instead vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. For example Chevys Silverado 2500 HD, which is now on the road, can effortlessly switch between petroleum and natural gas, and offers a range of over 650 miles. [25] While the duplicated tanks cost space in some applications, the increased range, decreased cost of fuel and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a significant incentive to purchase. While the U. S. Natural gas infrastructure is partially incomplete, it is increasing at a fast pace, and already has 2600 CNG stations in place. [26] With a growing fueling station infrastructure, a large scale adoption of these bi-fuel vehicles could be seen in the near future. Rising gas prices may also push consumers to purchase these vehicles. When gas prices trade around $4. 00, the price per MMBTU of gasoline is $28. 00, compared to natural gass $4. 00 per MMBTU. [27] On a per unit of energy comparative basis, this makes natural gas much cheaper than gasoline. All of these factors are making CNG-Gasoline bi-fuel vehicles very attractive. * Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel. * Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included (see Motorized bicycle). Fluid power hybrid Chrysler minivan, petro-hydraulic hybrid French MDI petro-air hybrid car developed with Tata. Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic or pneumatic (i. e. compressed air) drive units. In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain merely only to change the energy accumulator. The transmission is seamless. Petro-air hybrid A French company, MDI, has designed and has running models of a petro-air hybrid engine car. The system does not use air motors to drive the vehicle, being directly driven by a hybrid engine. The engine uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders. [28] A key aspect of the hybrid engine is the active chamber, which is a compartment heating air via fuel doubling the energy output. [29] Tata Motors of India assessed the design phase towards full production for the Indian market and moved into completing detailed development of the compressed air engine into specific vehicle and stationary applications. [30][31] Petro-hydraulic hybrid Petro-hydraulic configurations have been common in trains and heavy vehicles for decades. The auto industry recently focused on this hybrid configuration as it now shows promise for introduction into smaller vehicles. In petro-hydraulic hybrids, the energy recovery rate is high and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids using the current battery technology, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) testing. [32] The charging engine needs only to be sized for average usage with acceleration bursts using the stored energy in the hydraulic accumulator, which is charged when in low energy demanding vehicle operation. The charging engine runs at optimum speed and load for efficiency and longevity. Under tests undertaken by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 miles per US gallon (7. 4 L/100 km; 38 mpg-imp) City, and 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp) highway. [33][34] UPS currently has two trucks in service with this technology. [35] Although petro-hybrid technology has been known for decades, and used in trains and very large construction vehicles, heavy costs of the equipment precluded the systems from lighter trucks and cars. In the modern sense an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hybrid road vehicles in 1978. A group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesotas Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the shelf components. A car rated at 32mpg was returning 75mpg with the 60HP engine replaced by 16HP engine. The experimental car reached 70 mph. [36] In the 1990s, a team of engineers working at EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory succeeded in developing a revolutionary type of petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain that would propel a typical American sedan car. The test car achieved over 80 mpg on combined EPA city/highway driving cycles. Acceleration was 0-60 mph in 8 seconds, using a 1. 9 liter diesel engine. No lightweight materials were used. The EPA estimated that produced in high volumes the hydraulic components would add only $700 to the base cost of the vehicle. [34] While the petro-hydraulic system has faster and more efficient charge/discharge cycling and is cheaper than petro-electric hybrids, the accumulator size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than a battery set. Research is underway in large corporations and small companies. Focus has now switched to smaller vehicles. The system components were expensive which precluded installation in smaller trucks and cars. A drawback was that the power driving motors were not efficient enough at part load. A British company has made a breakthrough by introducing an electronically controlled hydraulic motor/pump, the Digital Displacement motor/pump, that is highly efficient at all speed ranges and loads making small applications of petro-hydraulic hybrids feasible. [37] The company converted a BMW car as a test bed to prove viability. The BMW 530i, gave double the mpg in city driving compared to the standard car. This test was using the standard 3,000cc engine. Petro-hydraulic hybrids using well sized accumulators entails downsizing an engine to average power usage, not peak power usage. Peak power is provided by the energy stored in the accumulator. A smaller more efficient constant speed engine reduces weight and liberates space for a larger accumulator. [38] Current vehicle bodies are designed around the mechanicals of existing engine/transmission setups. It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. One research projects goal is to create a blank paper design new car, to maximize the packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle. All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. One design has claimed to return 130mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car. The small hydraulic driving motors are incorporated within the wheel hubs driving the wheels and reversing to claw-back kinetic braking energy. The hub motors eliminates the need for friction brakes, mechanical transmissions, drive shafts and U joints, reducing costs and weight. Hydrostatic drive with no friction brakes are used in industrial vehicles. [39] The aim is 170mpg in average driving conditions. Energy created by shock absorbers and kinetic braking energy that normally would be wasted assists in charging the accumulator. A small fossil fuelled piston engine sized for average power use charges the accumulator. The accumulator is sized at running the car for 15 minutes when fully charged. The aim is a fully charged accumulator with an energy storage potential of 670 HP, which will produce a 0-60 mph acceleration speed of under 5 seconds using four wheel drive. [40][41][42] In January 2011 industry giant Chrysler announced a partnership with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design and develop an experimental petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain suitable for use in large passenger cars. In 2012 an existing production minvan will be adapted to the new hydraulic powertrain. [34][43][44][45] PSA Peugeot Citroen exhibited an experimental Hybrid Air engine at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. [46] The vehicle uses nitrogen gas compressed by energy harvested from braking or deceleration to power an hydraulic drive which supplements power from its conventional gasoline engine. The hydraulic and electronic components were supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Production versions priced at about $25,000, ? 17,000, are scheduled for 2015 or 2016. Mileage was estimated to be about 80 miles per gallon for city driving if installed in a Citroen C3. [47] Electric-human power hybrid vehicle Another form of hybrid vehicle are human power-electric vehicles. These include such vehicles as the Sinclair C5, Twike, electric bicycles, and electric skateboards. Hybrid vehicle power train configurations Main articles: Hybrid vehicle drivetrains and Micro HEV. Parallel hybrid Honda Insight, Mild Parallel Hybrid Toyota Prius, series-parallel hybrid Ford Escape Hybrid, a series-parallel drivetrain In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the single electric motor and the internal combustion engine are installed such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. In contrast to the power split configuration typically only one electric motor is installed. Most commonly the internal combustion engine, the electric motor and gear box are coupled by automatically controlled clutches. For electric driving the clutch between the internal combustion engine is open while the clutch to the gear box is engaged. While in combustion mode the engine and motor run at the same speed. The first mass production parallel hybrid sold outside Japan was the 1st generation Honda Insight. Mild parallel hybrid These types use a generally compact electric motor (usually 20 kW) to provide auto-stop/start features and to provide extra power assist[48] during the acceleration, and to generate on the deceleration phase (aka regenerative braking). On-road examples include Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda Insight 2nd generation, Honda CR-Z, Honda Accord Hybrid, Mercedes Benz S400 BlueHYBRID, BMW 7-Series hybrids, General Motors BAS Hybrids, and Smart fortwo with micro hybrid drive. Power-split or series-parallel hybrid Passenger car installations include Toyota Prius, Ford Escape and Fusion, as well as Lexus RX400h, RX450h, GS450h, LS600h, and CT200h. In a power-split hybrid electric drive train there are two motors: an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The power from these two motors can be shared to drive the wheels via a power splitter, which is a simple planetary gear set. The ratio can be from 0–100% for the combustion engine, or 0–100% for the electric motor, or anything in between, such as 40% for the electric motor and 60% for the combustion engine. The electric motor can act as a generator charging the batteries. Modern versions such as the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive have a second electric motor/generator on the output shaft (connected to the wheels). In cooperation with the primary motor/generator and the mechanical power-split this provides a continuously variable transmission. On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary reducing curbside emissions. Series hybrid Chevrolet Volt, series plug-in hybrid. Honda Civic Hybrid used by Zipcar car sharing service Ford Escape plug-in hybrid A series- or serial-hybrid vehicle has also been referred to as an Extended Range Electric Vehicle or Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (EREV/REEV); however, range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts. Series-hybrid vehicles are driven by the electric motor with no mechanical connection to the engine. Instead there is an engine tuned for running a generator when the battery pack energy supply isnt sufficient for demands. This arrangement is not new, being common in diesel-electric locomotives and ships. Ferdinand Porsche used this setup in the early 20th century in racing cars, effectively inventing the series-hybrid arrangement. Porsche named the arrangement System Mixt. A wheel hub motor arrangement, with a motor in each of the two front wheels was used, setting speed records. This arrangement was sometimes referred to as an electric transmission, as the electric generator and driving motor replaced a mechanical transmission. The vehicle could not move unless the internal combustion engine was running. The setup has never proved to be suitable for production cars, however it is currently being revisited by several manufacturers. In 1997 Toyota released the first series-hybrid bus sold in Japan. [49] GM introduced the Chevy Volt EREV in 2010, aiming for an all-electric range of 40 miles,[50] and a price tag of around $40,000. [51] Supercapacitors combined with a lithium ion battery bank have been used by AFS Trinity in a converted Saturn Vue SUV vehicle. Using supercapacitors they claim up to 150 mpg in a series-hybrid arrangement. [52] Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Main article: Plug-in hybrid Another subtype added to the hybrid market is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is usually a general fuel-electric (parallel or serial) hybrid with increased energy storage capacity (usually Li-ion batteries). It may be connected to mains electricity supply at the end of the journey to avoid charging using the on-board internal combustion engine. [53][54] This concept is attractive to those seeking to minimize on-road emissions by avoiding – or at least minimizing – the use of ICE during daily driving. As with pure electric vehicles, the total emissions saving, for example in CO2 terms, is dependent upon the energy source of the electricity generating company. For some users, this type of vehicle may also be financially attractive so long as the electrical energy being used is cheaper than the petrol/diesel that they would have otherwise used. Current tax systems in many European countries use mineral oil taxation as a major income source. This is generally not the case for electricity, which is taxed uniformly for the domestic customer, however that person uses it. Some electricity suppliers also offer price benefits for off-peak night users, which may further increase the attractiveness of the plug-in option for commuters and urban motorists. Fuel cell, electric hybrid. The fuel cell hybrid is generally an electric vehicle equipped with a fuel cell. The fuel cell as well as the electric battery are both power sources, making the vehicle a hybrid. Fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel and power the electric battery when it is depleted. The Chevrolet Equinox FCEV, Ford Edge Hyseries Drive and Honda FCX are examples of a fuel cell/electric hybrid. Road safety for cyclists, pedestrians A 2009 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration report examined HEV accidents that involved pedestrians and cyclists and compared them to accidents involving combustion-engine vehicles. The findings showed that, in certain road situations, HEVs are more dangerous for those on foot or bicycle. For accidents where a vehicle was slowing or stopping, backing up, entering or leaving a parking space (when the sound difference between HEVs and CEVs is most pronounced), HEVs were twice as likely to be involved in a pedestrian crash than CEVs. For crashes involving cyclists or pedestrians, there was a higher incident rate for HEVs than CEVs when a vehicle was turning a corner. But there was no statistically significant difference between the types of vehicles when they were driving straight. [55] Environmental issues Fuel consumption and emissions reductions The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), resulting in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are primarily achieved by three elements of a typical hybrid design: 1. relying on both the engine and the electric motors for peak power needs, resulting in a smaller engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. A smaller engine can have less internal losses and lower weight. 2. having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy, especially in stop-and-go traffic typical of the city driving cycle. 3. recapturing significant amounts of energy during braking that are normally wasted as heat. This regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into electricity, depending upon the power rating of the motor/generator; Other techniques that are not necessarily hybrid features, but that are frequently found on hybrid vehicles include: 1.using Atkinson cycle engines instead of Otto cycle engines for improved fuel economy. 2. shutting down the engine during traffic stops or while coasting or during other idle periods. 3. improving aerodynamics; (part of the reason that SUVs get such bad fuel economy is the drag on the car. A box shaped car or truck has to exert more force to move through the air causing more stress on the engine making it work harder). Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a good way to help better the fuel economy and also improve handling at the same time. 4. using low rolling resistance tires (tires were often made to give a quiet, smooth ride, high grip, etc. , but efficiency was a lower priority). Tires cause mechanical drag, once again making the engine work harder, consuming more fuel. Hybrid cars may use special tires that are more inflated than regular tires and stiffer or by choice of carcass structure and rubber compound have lower rolling resistance while retaining acceptable grip, and so improving fuel economy whatever the power source. 5. powering the a/c, power steering, and other auxiliary pumps electrically as and when needed ; this reduces mechanical losses when compared with driving them continuously with traditional engine belts. These features make a hybrid vehicle particularly efficient for city traffic where there are frequent stops, coasting and idling periods. In addition noise emissions are reduced, particularly at idling and low operating speeds, in comparison to conventional engine vehicles.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Racism all around

Racism all around Racism Most of us deal with it sometimes; you are just taking a walk outside, and see a group of ‘foreign people at the corner of the street (which you consider Turkish), just walking or cycling. Then suddenly your head make a little switch, and all sort of thoughts come in, like: ‘They are never doing anything useful. Or: ‘They are living in the Netherlands, and we all pay for their benefit. Or: ‘I have to watch out, they are dangerous!. But actually you do not know that. You cannot judge people on what they look like. When you do, that is called racism; judging people on their skin colour and roots. Its something that is not fair whatsoever. But what is it exactly? And why does it exist? Has racism always existed during human history? And what are the consequences? And what can you do to stop it? What is racism exactly and why does it exist? Mostly racism includes a (mostly negative) judgment on people with (as I mentioned in the introduction) different roots and races, different physical features or different abilities. It is mostly based on ideas and prejudices which are not proven to be true. It is mostly an incomplete idea of the reality which is (partly) wrong. Has racism always existed during human history? During the whole human history there has been racism. People always need to feel important. They need to feel ‘better than other people, and therefore they need people from which they can say: ‘They are less important than me. It is not likely for them to say that about people which they are related to, or which are like them. Because that would mean that they are just like them. No, they need people which are different. There are many horrible things that happened in history, as consequence of racism. I think the worst example of this is the World War II. During that was, millions of Jewish people were killed. Hitler, who was the cause of this horrible war, thought that people should preferably have blond hair and blue eyes. People should exactly be like he had them in his mind. This was one of the reasons that so many people were killed. During the war also a lot of disabled and Gypsies were murdered. By the way, all trough history (also before the Second World War) Jews were the target of racism. A lot of them were already killed before Hitler started the war. Before that, a lot of Africans and Asians were used as slaves. They were ‘owned by rich European people, and they were treated very badly. The Europeans saw them as some animals, who had to work for them. I consider that too racism. Because they would never let e.g. their little sister work for them like that. That is just a fact. I can even use what I recently learned in history class. The chapter was about the middle ages, and the people who had the same profession (which lived in the same city), formed a corporation. They worked together, do defend themselves from people who would stop their economy from being successful. After some time, they just didnt let new citizens in, into their corporation, even though they probably had great ideas for them to improve their trade and production. I also consider this an example of racism, because those people were from another city, they were not allowed to join the corporation and have a certain profession. Taking death penalty in the US as another example of racism; research pointed out that black skinned people, who had committed a crime and were to be executed,   were obviously executed earlier and more often than white skinned people. The same happens in e.g. Saudi Arabia. If a foreigner commits a crime (or is suspected to have committed a crime), there is no way he could defend himself. The local people can understand what the judge is saying, and they can have a lawyer. But as foreigner there is not really a chance that you will either understand the whole process, or will be able to defend yourself. So now you can see that racism is not something that just started to exist. It has always existed in times when humans were there. What are the consequences of racism? In the past, racism led to rules which concerned only a certain group of people. It caused a difference in rights of humans with a different skin colour, religion, or with differences in any other way. People were separated and segregation started (segregation in cities for example mean that there are different neighborhoods where the people from the same country/culture live close together. You can see this very clearly in some big cities in the US). Because of racism, people are ‘taught to consider a group of foreigners or immigrants to be ‘less important and ‘different. This can have different consequences. On individuals it can cause unhappiness and frustration because they are not being understood. This can result into physical problems. But here is my point; in the Netherlands there are many people who think foreigners and black people who live here, cause a lot more problems and use a lot more violence than normal Dutch people. When we see some Turkish boys walking on the street, we automatically link that to the bad reputation they have. I think I can partly understand them getting angry if people are looking at them like they are outsiders or strangers. Maybe, the few who do, just shout at us because they want to stand up for themselves. Because they do not want to be considered different. Probably it is also the media who is part of the blame. If some Moroccan boys have committed a crime, that is literally (Moroccan boys) in the newspaper, as if they are just not one of us. The strange thing is: I have never seen a newspaper which says: ‘Two Dutch boys stole a bike. People who are subjected to racism, are mostly held responsible for certain problems. They are sometimes said to be the reason for overcrowding in a country, and economical problems like unemployment and inflation. While, in fact, these people are often more effected by such problems then other people. They only suffer from them, instead of causing them. This process does not take place without a reason. Those people who suffer from racism, are mostly one of the weakest groups in the society. People can easily blame them for things without having big problems. And because of the fact that people think those groups are the cause of the problems, they are in a way kept ‘weak. They have a certain mark, and that makes their opportunity to take part in the society in a normal way, less probable. What can you do to stop racism? There are some things you can do about racism, but in peoples minds it will never go away, I guess. Its important to make universal rules about racism that everyone knows. At the moment there are a lot of countries in the world where racism is prohibited. They have made a law that it is not allowed to use racism. If you do, you are ‘guilty of racism. But the government cannot punish you. Often this law is part of the constitution of a country. This is because freedom of expression and freedom of speech are in most Western countries also a main part of the constitution. And you cannot punish someone for his or her thoughts and opinion in the modern world. This means racism is very difficult to stop. But still you can find the ‘law about racism being forbidden in the Treaty for the rights of Humans (I am not certain about this translation), which is set up by the European Union. So racism is the judgment of people from other races, who have other roots and look different. It has been occurring ever since the human population started existing. And even now it still happens that people use racism. As result of racism people get unsecure and unhappy. I can understand if they feel like people consider them as outsiders, they get a little angry inside. I think the media is part of the blame. Anyway, our constitution says racism is forbidden. Although it is hardly possible to punish people for it, due the freedom of expression, I think it should never happen!

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

A Look at Two Computer Hardware Review Websites :: Compare Contrast Papers

A Look at Two Computer Hardware Review Websites Although it is true that many people, when confronted with the task of buying a new computer, will simply go to the closest Best Buy and purchase whatever is on the shelf, an increasing number of people these days are turning to building their own computers. Whether they are interested in saving money, or just like the idea of being in control of what goes into their computer, they need to know which parts are the best for their needs, which parts are the best value. Getting this information from an impartial place can be challenging, but thankfully there are a few websites around today that have a reputation for giving honest reviews and going the extra mile to find the best hardware for your money. I am reviewing two of these sites today, Tom's Hardware Guide, and AnandTech. The first site I am reviewing is Tom's Hardware Guide. Tom's Hardware Guide(THG) is well known and is viewed as one of the most respected places to get information about computer hardware. It might not be immediately evident why anyone should believe that this website should have a lot of credibility, though. According to the "About Us" page, it was originally started in 1996 by Dr. Thomas Pabst, a doctor in Germany. Despite the fact that Tom was not a professional in a computer field, THG has grown to become one of the most popular and trusted places to get independent hardware reviews and has earned the credibility that it now has. I was not very impressed by the layout of the website. It looked like they were trying to put too much information onto the main page, and it was just too cluttered. The front page was full of news stories from the past few days that visitors to a computer hardware review site might find relevant, and links to some of their recent reviews even farther down on the main page. Along the sides there are a large number of computer related ads. I found it rather hard to find my way around the website.